Proguanil

Brands of Proguanil in Kenya

Proguanil, Cosmos Limited

Proguanil, also known as chlorguanide and chloroguanide, is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria. It is often used together with chloroquine or atovaquone.When used with chloroquine the combination will treat mild chloroquine resistant malaria. It is taken by mouth.


Proguanil in Kenya : Brands , Dosage, Where to buy in Kenya
Proguanil Chemical Structure.

MODE OF ACTION

Proguanil is an antimalarial drug and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor. It acts like the other antifolate antimalarials by interfering with the folic-folinic acid systems and thus exerts its effect mainly at the time the nucleus is dividing. Since its activity is dependent on its metabolism, proguanil has a slow schizonticidal effect in the blood. It also has some schizonticidal activity in the tissues.

Proguanil is effective against the exoerythrocytic forms of some strains of plasmodium falciparum but it has little or no activity against the exoerythrocytic forms of p. Vivax. It has a marked sporonticidal effect against some strains of p falciparum; it does not kill the gametocytes, but renders them non-infective for the mosquito while the drug is present in the blood. Malaria parasites in the red blood cells are killed more rapidly by chloroquine or quinine than by proguanil, which is therefore not the best drug to use for the treatment of acute malaria.

INDICATIONS

Proguanil is an effective antimalarial agent. It is recommended for the prevention and suppression of malaria.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Non-immune subjects entering a malarious area are advised to begin treatment with Proguanil 1 week before, or if this is not possible, then at least 2 days before entering the malarious area. The daily dose of Proguanil should be continued throughout exposure to risk and for 4 weeks after leaving the area.

Adults:

200 mg daily.

Paediatric population:

Under 1 year:

25 mg daily

1 to 4 years:

50 mg daily

5 to 8 years:

100 mg daily

9 to 14 years:

150 mg daily

Over 14 years:

Adult dose daily

The daily dose is best taken with water, after food, at the same time each day.

Provided the tablet fragment gives the minimum amount specified, precise accuracy in children’s dosage is not essential since the drug possesses a wide safety margin.

For a young child, the dose may be administered crushed and mixed with milk, honey or jam.

Older people: There are no special dosage recommendations for the elderly, but it may be advisable to monitor elderly patients so that optimum dosage can be individually determined.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Antacids

Antacids may reduce the absorption of proguanil, so should be taken at least 2-3 hours apart.

Anticoagulants

Proguanil can potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and related anticoagulants through a possible interference with their metabolic pathways. Caution is advised when initiating or withdrawing malaria prophylaxis with Paludrine in patients on continuous treatment with anticoagulants.

Live oral typhoid vaccination (Ty21a strain)

Proguanil should be stopped 3 days before and should not be started until 3 days after receiving live oral typhoid vaccination (Ty21a strain).

Boosted protease-inhibitors

When given with boosted protease-inhibitors, reduction in proguanil exposure has been observed. This combination should be avoided when possible.

ADVERSE EFFECTS

System Organ Class

Undesirable Effect and Frequency

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Not known

Haematological changes such as aplastic anaemia, anaemia megaloblastic and pancytopenia .

Immune system disorders

Not known

Hypersensitivity, including urticaria, angioedema

Vasculitis

Gastrointestinal disorders

Not known

Gastric disorder, including diarrhoea and constipation

Mouth ulceration

Stomatitis

Hepatobiliary disorders

Not known

Cholestasis

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Not known

Skin reactions such as skin exfoliation, rash, pruritus and alopecia

General disorders and administration site conditions

Not known

Pyrexia

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:

The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, pv@pharmacyboardkenya.org or clicking below button:


Proguanil in Kenya
Proguanil in Kenya
Proguanil in Kenya
Proguanil in Kenya
Proguanil in Kenya
Proguanil in Kenya

Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data


Pregnancy Category: C
Routes of Administration: Oral
Bioavailability: Not Available
Protein Binding: 75%
Metabolosim: By liver (CYP2C19)
Onset of Action: N/A
Elimination Half life: 12–21 hours
Excretion: Not Available

Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths


Prescription Category:
Prescription only Medicine (POM) , ℞-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This drug is not a controlled substance under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:


Drug Indentifiers:

CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard


Drug Images

References/ Citation:




What was the patient being treated for
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