Brands of Paracetamol / Lidocaine in Kenya
Feveral I.M Injection, Surge Laboratories (Pvt). Ltd.
MODE OF ACTION:
Lidocaine is used to provide anaesthesia by nerve blockade at various sites in the body and in the control of dysrhythmias. It has a rapid onset of action (about one minute following intravenous injection and fifteen minutes following intramuscular injection) and rapidly spreads through the surrounding tissues. The effect lasts about ten to twenty minutes and about sixty to ninety minutes following intravenous and intramuscular injection respectively.
Analgesic – the mechanism of analgesic action has not been fully determined. Paracetamol may act predominantly by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis in the central nervous system (CNS) and to a lesser extent, through a peripheral action by blocking pain-impulse generation.
The peripheral action may also be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis or to inhibition of the synthesis or actions of other substances that sensitise pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation.
Antipyretic – paracetamol probably produces antipyresis by acting centrally on the hypothalamic heat-regulation centre to produce peripheral vasodilation resulting in increased blood flow through the skin, sweating and heat loss. The central action probably involves inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus.
Lidocaine is a local anaesthetic of the amide group. The injectable form has a wide range of applications for nerve blockade. It can be used by percutaneous infiltration; to block a major nerve plexus such as the brachial; for epidural anaesthesia; for intravenous regional analgesia.
Paracetamol is is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate pain including headache, migraine, neuralgia, toothache, sore throat, period pains, aches and pains, symptomatic relief of rheumatic aches and pains and of influenza, feverishness and feverish colds.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance, to anaesthetics of the amide type or to any of the excipients .
Lidocaine is contraindicated in patients with:
– Complete heart block
Hypersensitivity to paracetamol or any of the constituents.
Cholestyramine: The speed of absorption of paracetamol is reduced by cholestyramine. Therefore, the cholestyramine should not be taken within one hour if maximal analgesia is required.
Metoclopramide and Domperidone: The absorption of paracetamol is increased by metoclopramide and domperidone. However, concurrent use need not be avoided.
Warfarin: The anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other coumarins may be enhanced by prolonged regular use of paracetamol with increased risk of bleeding; occasional doses have no significant effect.
Chloramphenicol: Increased plasma concentration of chloramphenicol.
Lidocaine toxicity is enhanced, by the co-administration of cimetidine and propranolol requiring a reduction in the dosage of lidocaine. Both drugs decrease hepatic blood flow. Also, cimetidine depresses microsomial activity. Ranitidine produces a small reduction in Lidocaine clearance. Increase in serum levels of lidocaine may also occur with anti-viral agents (e.g. amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir).
Hypokalaemia caused by diuretics may antagonize the action of lidocaine if administered concomitantly .
Lidocaine should be used with caution in patients receiving other local anaesthetics or agents structurally related to amide-type local anaesthetics (e.g. anti-arrhythmics, such as mexiletine), since the systemic toxic effects are additive. Specific interaction studies with lidocaine and class III anti-arrhythmic drugs (e.g. amiodarone) have not been performed, but caution is advised.
There may be an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia in patients treated concurrently with antipsychotics which prolong or may prolong the QT interval (e.g. pimozide, sertindole, olanzapine, quetiapine, zotepine), prenylamine, adrenaline (if accidently injected intravenously)) or 5HT3 antagonists (e.g. tropisetron, dolasetron).
Concomitant use of quinupristin/dalfopristin may increase lidocaine levels with a subsequent increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and therefore should be avoided.
There may be an increased risk of enhanced and prolonged neuromuscular blockade in patients treated concurrently with muscle relaxants (e.g. suxamethonium).
Cardiovascular collapse has been reported following the use of bupivacaine in patients on treatment with verapamil and timolol; Lidocaine is closely related to bupivacaine.
Dopamine and 5 hydroxytryptamine reduce the convulsant threshold to Lidocaine.
Narcotics are probably proconvulsants and this would support the evidence that Lidocaine reduces the seizure threshold to fentanyl in man.
Opioid-antiemetic combination sometimes used for sedation in children could reduce the convulsant threshold to Lidocaine and increase the CNS depressant effect.
While adrenaline when used in conjunction with Lidocaine might decrease vascular absorption, it greatly increase the danger of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation if accidentally injected intravenously.
Adverse effects of paracetamol are rare. Very rare cases of serious skin reactions have been reported. There have been reports of blood dyscrasias including thrombocytopenia purpura, methaemoglobenaemia and agranulocytosis, but these were not necessarily causality related to paracetamol.
Immune system disorders
Hypersensitivity reactions (allergic or anaphylactoid reactions, anaphylactic shock) – see also Skin & subcutaneous tissue disorders).
Skin testing for allergy to Lidocaine is not considered to be reliable.
Nervous & Psychiatric disorders
Neurological signs of systemic toxicity include dizziness or light-headedness, nervousness, tremor, circumoral paraesthesia, tongue numbness, drowsiness, convulsions, coma.
Nervous system reactions may be excitatory and or depressant. Signs of CNS stimulation may be brief, or may not occur at all, so that the first signs of toxicity may be confusion and drowsiness, followed by coma and respiratory failure.
Neurological complications of spinal anaesthesia include transient neurological symptoms such as pain of the lower back, buttock and legs. These symptoms usually develop within twenty-four hours of anaesthesia and resolve within a few days. Isolated cases of arachnoiditis or cauda equina syndrome, with persistent paraesthesia, bowel and urinary dysfunction, or lower limb paralysis have been reported following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine and other similar agents. The majority of cases have been associated with hyperbaric concentrations of Lidocaine or prolonged spinal infusion.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders
Lidocaine may also result in methaemoglobinaemia.
Blurred vision, diplopia and transient amaurosis may be signs of lidocaine toxicity.
Bilateral amaurosis may also be a consequence of accidental injection of the optic nerve sheath during ocular procedures. Orbital inflammation and diplopia have been reported following retro or peribulbar anaesthesia.
Ear and labyrinth disorders
Cardiac and vascular disorders
Cardiovascular reactions are depressant and may manifest as hypotension, bradycardia, myocardial depression, cardiac arrhythmias and possibly cardiac arrest or circulatory collapse.
Hypotension may accompany spinal and epidural anesthesia. Isolated cases of bradycardia and cardiac arrest have also been reported.
Respiratory, thoracic or mediastinal disorders
Dyspnoea, bronchospasm, respiratory depression, respiratory arrest.
Skin & subcutaneous tissue disorders
Rash, urticaria, angioedema, face oedema.
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:
The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, firstname.lastname@example.org or clicking below button:
Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data
Pregnancy Category: Not Recommended
Routes of Administration: I.M
Bioavailability: Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Metabolosim: Not Available
Onset of Action: Not Available
Elimination Half life: Not Available
Excretion: Not Available
Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths
Prescription only Medicine (POM) , ℞-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This drug is not a controlled substance under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:
Paracetamol 300mg + Lidocaine 20mg / 2ml
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
- PPB Drugs Retention Register
- Boyes, R. N., et al. “Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine in man.” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 12.1 (1971): 105-116.
- Graham, Garry G., and Kieran F. Scott. “Mechanism of action of paracetamol.” American journal of therapeutics 12.1 (2005): 46-55.
- Forrest, John AH, J. A. Clements, and L. F. Prescott. “Clinical pharmacokinetics of paracetamol.” Clinical pharmacokinetics 7.2 (1982): 93-107.