Misoprostol / Diclofenac

Brands of  Misoprostol / Diclofenac Combination In Kenya

Arthrotec ,Pfizer Laboratories Limited
Cytopan,Getz

Mechanism of Action

Diclofenac/misoprostol is a combination product containing diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, and misoprostol, a GI mucosal protective prostaglandin E1 analog.
Diclofenac
The mechanism of action of diclofenac, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).
Diclofenac is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in vitro. Diclofenac concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because diclofenac is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.
Misoprostol
Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. A deficiency of prostaglandins within the gastric and duodenal mucosa may lead to diminishing bicarbonate and mucus secretion and may contribute to the mucosal damage caused by NSAIDs.

INDICATIONS

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol Combination is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis in patients at high risk of developing NSAID-induced gastric and duodenal ulcers and their complications.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol is contraindicated in the following patients:

  • Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to diclofenac sodium/misoprostol, other prostaglandins, or any components of the drug product
  • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients
  • In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery
  • Pregnancy. Use of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol during pregnancy can result in maternal and fetal harm, including abortion, premature birth, birth defects, and uterine rupture
  • Active gastrointestinal bleeding

DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Diclofenac and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of diclofenac and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
  • Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.
  • Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone
  • Concomitant use of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding
  • NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
  • In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
  • Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
  • The concomitant use of diclofenac with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.
  • NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
  • Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).
  • Concomitant use of diclofenac and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.
  • Concomitant use of diclofenac with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy
  • Concomitant use of diclofenac and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).
  • Antacids reduce the bioavailability of misoprostol acid. Antacids may also delay absorption of diclofenac. Magnesium-containing antacids exacerbate misoprostol-associated diarrhea.
  • Concomitant use of corticosteroids with diclofenac may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.
  • Diclofenac is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, predominantly by CYP2C9. Co-administration of diclofenac with CYP2C9 inhibitors (e.g. voriconzaole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of diclofenac

ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS:

The following adverse reactions are associated with Diclofenac/Misoprostol Combination

  • Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
  • GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Hypertension
  • Heart Failure and Edema
  • Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia
  • Anaphylactic Reactions
  • Serious Skin Reactions
  • Hematologic Toxicity
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:

The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, pv@pharmacyboardkenya.org or clicking below button:


Misoprostol / Diclofenac In Kenya
Misoprostol / Diclofenac In Kenya
Misoprostol / Diclofenac In Kenya
Misoprostol / Diclofenac In Kenya
Misoprostol / Diclofenac In Kenya

Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data


Pregnancy Category: X (Contraindicated)
Routes of Administration: Oral
Bioavailability: Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Metabolosim: Not Available
Onset of Action: Not Available
Elimination Half life: Not Available
Excretion: Not Available

Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths


Prescription Category:
Prescription only Medicine (POM) , ℞-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This drug is not a controlled substance under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:


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Side Effect


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