Brands of Ethambutol in Kenya

Etham-400,Cosmos Limited
Combutol, Lupin
Ethambutol 100mg , Macleods Pharmaceuticals Limited
Ecox 400 , Macleods Pharmaceuticals Limited
Inbutol , Yuria Pharm ltd

Ethambutol in Kenya: Price, Brand names, Generics
Ethambutol Chemical Structure

Mechanism of Action:

The mechanism of action of ethambutol is not completely known. There is evidence that the drug exerts its bacteriostatic activity by virtue of inhibition of arabinosyl transferase, an enzyme that polymerizes arabinose into arabinan and then arabinogalactan, a mycobacterial cell wall constituent.


Ethambutol hydrochloride is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. It should not be used as the sole antituberculous drug, but should be used in conjunction with at least one other antituberculous drug. Selection of the companion drug should be based on clinical experience, considerations of comparative safety and appropriate in-vitro susceptibility studies. In patients who have not received previous antituberculous therapy, i.e., initial treatment, the most frequently used regimens have been the following:


Ethambutol hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to this drug. It is also contraindicated in patients with known optic neuritis unless clinical judgement determines that it may be used. Ethambutol hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients who are unable to appreciate and report visual side effects or changes in vision (e.g., young children, unconscious patients).


Aluminium hydroxide impairs the absorption of ethambutol. Acid suppressing drugs or antacids that do not contain aluminium hydroxide can be used during ethambutol therapy.


Ethambutol hydrochloride may produce decreases in visual acuity, including irreversible blindness, which appear to be due to optic neuritis. Optic neuropathy including optic neuritis or retrobulbar neuritis occurring in association with ethambutol therapy may be characterized by one or more of the following events: decreased visual acuity, scotoma, color blindness, and/or visual defect. These events have also been reported in the absence of a diagnosis of optic or retrobulbar neuritis.
Hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:

The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, or clicking below button:

Ethambutol in Kenya
Ethambutol in Kenya
Ethambutol in Kenya
Ethambutol in Kenya

Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data

Pregnancy Category: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of Administration: Oral
Bioavailability: 75% to 80%
Protein Binding: 20–30%
Metabolosim: Liver
Onset of Action: N/A
Elimination Half life: 3–4 hours
Excretion: After 24 hours, about 50% of unchanged ethambutol and 8% to 15% of its metabolites are excreted in urine; 20% to 25% is excreted in feces. Small amounts of drug may be excreted in breast milk.

Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths

Prescription Category:
Prescription only Medicine (POM) , ℞-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This Drug is not Subject to DDA drugs Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:

Drug Indentifiers:

CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard

Drug Images

References/ Citation:

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