Cefdinir

Mechanism of Action
As with other cephalosporins, bactericidal activity of cefdinir results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Cefdinir is stable in the presence of some, but not all, β-lactamase enzymes. As a result, many organisms resistant to penicillins and some cephalosporins are susceptible to cefdinir.
Mechanism of Resistance
Resistance to cefdinir is primarily through hydrolysis by some β-lactamases, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and decreased permeability. Cefdinir is inactive against most strains of Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., penicillin-resistant streptococci, and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. β-lactamase negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae strains are typically non-susceptible to cefdinir.
Antimicrobial Activity
Cefdinir has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only)
Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-Negative Bacteria

Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis


Brands of Cefdinir in Kenya
Akudinir® , Unosource Pharma Limited
Labnir® , Laboratory & Allied Ltd
Kefnir®, Glenmark

INDICATIONS:

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only), and Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase producing strains)
  • Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only), and Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase producing strains).
  • Acute Maxillary Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase producing strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only), and Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase producing strains).
  • Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including β-lactamase producing strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes.

CONTRAINDICATIONS
Cefdinir is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin class of antibiotics.
ADVERSE REACTION
Allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, false-positive test for urinary glucose, neutropenia, pancytopenia, and agranulocytosis. Pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may begin during or after antibiotic treatment
Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced

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References/ Citation:

Cefdinir