Brand names of Cefazolin in Kenya
Cefzole®, Gufic Stridden Biopharma Pvt Ltd
Cezol®, Pharmaco Healthcare Limited
Fezolin®, Sisi Pharmaceuticals
Cefazolin Mechanism of Action
Cefazolin is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
Predominant mechanisms of bacterial resistance to cephalosporins include the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and enzymatic hydrolysis.
Cefazolin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are uniformly resistant to cefazolin.
Most isolates of indole positive Proteus (Proteus vulgaris), Enterobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Serratia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. are resistant to cefazolin.
Respiratory Tract Infections: Due to S. pneumoniae, Klebsiella species, H. influenzae, S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Injectable benzathine penicillin is considered the drug of choice in treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.
Cefazolin, is effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of Cefazolin in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.
Urinary Tract Infections: Due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and some strains of enterobacter and enterococci.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Due to S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and other strains of streptococci.
Biliary Tract Infections: Due to E. coli, various strains of streptococci, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and S. aureus.
Bone and Joint Infections: Due to S. aureus.
Genital Infections: (i.e., prostatitis, epididymitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and some strains of enterococci.
Septicemia: Due to S. pneumoniae, S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), P. mirabilis, E. coli, and Klebsiella species.
Endocarditis: Due to S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Perioperative Prophylaxis: The prophylactic administration of Cefazolin preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures which are classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal hysterectomy, and cholecystectomy in high-risk patients such as those older than 70 years, with acute cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice, or common duct bile stones).
The perioperative use of Cefazolin , may also be effective in surgical patients in whom infection at the operative site would present a serious risk (e.g., during open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty).
The prophylactic administration of Cefazolin should usually be discontinued within a 24-hour period after the surgical procedure. In surgery where the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g., open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of Cefazolin may be continued for 3 to 5 days following the completion of surgery.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Usual Adult Dosage:
* In rare instances, doses of up to 12 grams of Cefazolin for Injection per day have been used.
|Type of Infection||Dose||Frequency|
|Moderate to severe infections||500 mg to 1 gram||every 6 to 8 hours|
|Mild infections caused by susceptible gram-positive cocci||250 mg to 500 mg||every 8 hours|
|Acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infections||1 gram||every 12 hours|
|Pneumococcal pneumonia||500 mg||every 12 hours|
|Severe, life-threatening infections (e.g., endocarditis, septicemia)*||1 gram to 1.5 grams||every 6 hours|
Cefazolin is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
Probenecid may decrease renal tubular secretion of cephalosporins when used concurrently, resulting in increased and more prolonged cephalosporin blood levels.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: A false positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with Benedict’s solution, Fehling’s solution or with CLINITEST® tablets, but not with enzyme-based tests such as CLINISTIX®.
Positive direct and indirect antiglobulin (Coombs) tests have occurred; these may also occur in neonates whose mothers received cephalosporins before delivery.
The following reactions have been reported:
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, oral candidiasis (oral thrush), vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, anorexia and pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment. Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely.
Allergic: Anaphylaxis, eosinophilia, itching, drug fever, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Hematologic: Neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemia.
Hepatic: Transient rise in SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase levels has been observed. As with other cephalosporins, reports of hepatitis have been received.
Renal: As with other cephalosporins, reports of increased BUN and creatinine levels, as well as renal failure, have been received.
Local Reactions: Rare instances of phlebitis have been reported at site of injection. Pain at the site of injection after intramuscular administration has occurred infrequently. Some induration has occurred.
Other Reactions: Genital and anal pruritus (including vulvar pruritus, genital moniliasis, and vaginitis).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:
The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, firstname.lastname@example.org or clicking below button:
Cefazolin in Kenya
Cefazolin in Kenya
Cefazolin in Kenya
Cefazolin in Kenya
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Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data
Pregnancy Category: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of Administration: intravenous, intramuscular
Bioavailability: Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Metabolosim: Not Available
Onset of Action: Not Available
Elimination Half life: 1.8 hours (given IV) , 2 hours (given IM)
Excretion: kidney, unchanged
Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths
Prescription only Medicine (POM) , ℞-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This drug is not a controlled substance under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
- PPB Drugs Retention Register
- Kirby, William MM, and Claude Regamey. “Pharmacokinetics of cefazolin compared with four other cephalosporins.” Journal of Infectious Diseases 128.Supplement_2 (1973): S341-S346.