Mechanism of Action
Cefazolin is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
Predominant mechanisms of bacterial resistance to cephalosporins include the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and enzymatic hydrolysis.
Cefazolin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are uniformly resistant to cefazolin.
Most isolates of indole positive Proteus (Proteus vulgaris), Enterobacter spp., Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Serratia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. are resistant to cefazolin.
Drug Label Information | Brands:
Brands of Cefazolin Registered in Kenya
Cefzole®, Gufic Stridden Biopharma Pvt Ltd
Cezol®, Pharmaco Healthcare Limited
Kefzol®, Eli Lilly
Cefazolin is indicated for the treatment of the following serious infections due to susceptible organisms:
Respiratory Tract Infections: Due to S. pneumoniae, Klebsiella species, H. influenzae, S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Injectable benzathine penicillin is considered the drug of choice in treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.
Cefazolin for Injection, USP is effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of Cefazolin for Injection, USP in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.
Urinary Tract Infections: Due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and some strains of enterobacter and enterococci.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Due to S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and other strains of streptococci.
Biliary Tract Infections: Due to E. coli, various strains of streptococci, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and S. aureus.
Bone and Joint Infections: Due to S. aureus.
Genital Infections: (i.e., prostatitis, epididymitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and some strains of enterococci.
Septicemia: Due to S. pneumoniae, S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), P. mirabilis, E. coli, and Klebsiella species.
Endocarditis: Due to S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Perioperative Prophylaxis: The prophylactic administration of Cefazolin for Injection, USP preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures which are classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal hysterectomy, and cholecystectomy in high-risk patients such as those older than 70 years, with acute cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice, or common duct bile stones).
The perioperative use of Cefazolin for Injection, USP may also be effective in surgical patients in whom infection at the operative site would present a serious risk (e.g., during open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty).
The prophylactic administration of Cefazolin for Injection, USP should usually be discontinued within a 24-hour period after the surgical procedure. In surgery where the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g., open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of Cefazolin for Injection, USP may be continued for 3 to 5 days following the completion of surgery.
If there are signs of infection, specimens for cultures should be obtained for the identification of the causative organism so that appropriate therapy may be instituted
Cefazolin for injection is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
The following reactions have been reported:
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, oral candidiasis (oral thrush), vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, anorexia and pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment . Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely.
Allergic: Anaphylaxis, eosinophilia, itching, drug fever, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Hematologic: Neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemia.
Hepatic: Transient rise in SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase levels has been observed. As with other cephalosporins, reports of hepatitis have been received.
Renal: As with other cephalosporins, reports of increased BUN and creatinine levels, as well as renal failure, have been received.
Local Reactions: Rare instances of phlebitis have been reported at site of injection. Pain at the site of injection after intramuscular administration has occurred infrequently. Some induration has occurred.
Other Reactions: Genital and anal pruritus (including vulvar pruritus, genital moniliasis, and vaginitis).