Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine

Brands of Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya

Action, Beta
A.P.C,
A.P.C, Universal Corporation Limited
A.P.C, Sphinx
Apycy, Lab & Allied.
Aspec®, Regal
Dawanol, Adcock Ingram Limited
Hedex, Beta Healthcare
Kaluma® Strong, Bal Pharma Limited (For Orange Pharma Ltd)
Mara Moja, Beta Healthcare
Nopen®, Lab and Allied
Sona Moja®, Bal Pharma Limited (For Orange Pharma Ltd)


Aspirin Paracetamol Caffeine in Kenya : Uses, Brands, Generics
Aspirin Paracetamol Caffeine : Chemical Structures (Photo courtesy – Pubchem )

MODE OF ACTION

Aspirin

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) blocks prostaglandin synthesis. It is non-selective for COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes . Inhibition of COX-1 results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation for about 7-10 days (average platelet lifespan).

Paracetamol:

Paracetamol has a central analgesic effect that is mediated through activation of descending serotonergic pathways. Debate exists about its primary site of action, which may be inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis or through an active metabolite influencing cannabinoid receptors

Caffeine:

Caffeine action is thought to be mediated via several mechanisms: the antagonism of adenosine receptors, the inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the release of calcium from intracellular stores, and antagonism of benzodiazepine receptors

INDICATIONS

For the treatment of mild to moderate pain including headache, migraine, neuralgia, toothache, sore throat, period pains, symptomatic relief of sprains, strains, rheumatic pain, sciatica, lumbago, fibrositis, muscular aches and pains, joint swelling and stiffness, influenza, feverishness and feverish colds.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity to the active ingredients or any of the other constituents. Peptic ulceration and those with a history of peptic ulceration; haemophilia, concurrent anti-coagulant therapy; children under 16 years and when breast feeding because of possible risk of Reyes Syndrome.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Aspirin:

Other NSAIDs and corticosteroids: Concurrent use of other NSAIDs or corticosteroids may increase the likelihood of GI side effects.

Diuretics: Antagonism of the diuretic effect.

Anticoagulants: Increased risk of bleeding due to antiplatelet effect.

Metoclopramide: Metoclopramide increases the rate of absorption of aspirin. However, concurrent use need not be avoided.

Phenytoin: The effect of phenytoin may be enhanced by aspirin. However, no special precautions are needed.

Valproate: The effect of valproate may be enhanced by aspirin.

Methotrexate: Delayed excretion and increased toxicity of methotrexate.

Paracetamol:

Cholestyramine: The speed of absorption of paracetamol is reduced by cholestyramine. Therefore, the cholestyramine should not be taken within one hour if maximal analgesia is required.

Metoclopramide and Domperidone: The speed of absorption of paracetamol is increased by metoclopramide and domperidone. However, concurrent use need not be avoided.

Warfarin: The anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other coumarins may be enhanced by prolonged regular use of paracetamol with increased risk of bleeding; occasional doses have no significant effect.

Chloramphenicol: Increased plasma concentration of chloramphenicol.

Caffeine:

Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of caffeine in humans. Therefore, caffeine has the potential to interact with active substances that are substrates for CYP1A2, inhibit CYP1A2, or induce CYP1A2. However, caffeine metabolism in preterm newborn infants is limited due to their immature hepatic enzyme systems.

Interconversion between caffeine and other xanthines such as theophylline has been reported in premature neonates. Therefore the concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided. Baseline serum levels of caffeine should be measured in patients previously treated with theophylline.

Although few data exist on interactions of caffeine with other active substances in preterm newborn infants, lower doses of caffeine citrate may be needed following co-administration of active substances which are reported to decrease caffeine elimination in adults (e.g., cimetidine and ketoconazole) and higher caffeine citrate doses may be needed following co-administration of active substances that increase caffeine elimination (e.g., phenobarbital and phenytoin). Where doubt exists about possible interactions, plasma caffeine concentrations should be measured.

As bacterial overgrowth in the gut is associated with the development of necrotising enterocolitis, co-administration of caffeine citrate with medicinal products that suppress gastric acid secretion (antihistamine H2 receptor blockers or proton-pump inhibitors) may in theory increase the risk of necrotising enterocolitis .

Concurrent use of caffeine and doxapram might potentiate their stimulatory effects on the cardio-respiratory and central nervous system. If concurrent use is indicated, cardiac rhythm and blood pressure must be carefully monitored.

ADVERSE EFFECTS

Side effects are mild and infrequent, but there is a high incidence of gastro-intestinal irritation with slight asymptomatic blood loss. Increased bleeding time. Aspirin may precipitate bronchospasm and induce asthma attacks or other hypersensitivity reactions, such as skin reactions (including angioedema and face oedema) in susceptible individuals.

Aspirin may induce gastro-intestinal haemorrhage, occasionally major. It may precipitate gout in susceptible individuals. Possible risk of Reye’s Syndrome in children under 16 years.

Adverse effects of paracetamol are rare. Very rare cases of serious skin reactions have been reported. There have been reports of blood dyscrasias including thrombocytopenia purpura and agranulocytosis, but these were not necessarily causality related to paracetamol.

High doses of caffeine can cause tremor and palpitations.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:

The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, pv@pharmacyboardkenya.org or clicking below button:


Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya
Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya
Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya
Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya
Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya
Aspirin / Paracetamol / Caffeine in Kenya

Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data


Pregnancy Category:
Routes of Administration: Oral
Bioavailability: Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Metabolosim: Not Available
Onset of Action: N/A
Elimination Half life: Not Available
Excretion: Not Available

Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths


Prescription Category:
OTC / Rx-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This drug is not a controlled substance under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:


Drug Indentifiers:

PubChem CID
ChemSpider


Drug Images

References/ Citation:




What was the patient being treated for
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