Ampicillin / Sulbactam

Brands of Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya

Sulbacin ,Unichem Laboratories Ltd.


Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya: Brands , Prices, Where to Buy
Ampicillin / Sulbactam Chemical Structure

MODE OF ACTION

Ampicillin is similar to benzyl penicillin in its bactericidal action against susceptible organisms during the stage of active multiplication. It acts through the inhibition of cell wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. Ampicillin has a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. (Ampicillin is, however, degraded by beta-lactamases and therefore the spectrum of activity does not normally include organisms which produce these enzymes.)

Sulbactam is an irreversible inhibitor of β-lactamase; it binds to the enzyme and does not allow it to degrade the antibiotic.

INDICATIONS

Ampicillin and sulbactam ,is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.

Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterobacter spp., and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp.

Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli,and Bacteroides spp.(including B. fragilis).

While ampicillin /sulbactam , is indicated only for the conditions listed above, infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms are also amenable to treatment with ampicillin/ sulbactam  combination, due to its ampicillin content. Therefore, mixed infections caused by ampicillin-susceptible organisms and beta-lactamase producing organisms susceptible to ampicillin /sulbactam combination should not require the addition of another antibacterial.

Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify the organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin and sulbactam for injection.

Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining the results from bacteriological and susceptibility studies when there is reason to believe the infection may involve any of the beta-lactamase producing organisms listed above in the indicated organ systems. Once the results are known, therapy should be adjusted if appropriate.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and other antibacterial drugs, ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection may be administered by either the IV or the IM routes.

For IV administration, the dose can be given by slow intravenous injection over at least 10 to 15 minutes or can also be delivered in greater dilutions with 50 to 100 mL of a compatible diluent as an intravenous infusion over 15 to 30 minutes.

Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection may be administered by deep intramuscular injection.

The recommended adult dosage of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection is 1.5 g (1 g ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 0.5 g sulbactam as the sodium salt) to 3 g (2 g ampicillin as the sodium salt plus 1 g sulbactam as the sodium salt) every six hours. This 1.5 to 3 g range represents the total of ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and corresponds to a range of 1 g ampicillin/0.5 g sulbactam to 2 g ampicillin/1 g sulbactam. The total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day.

Pediatric Patients 1 Year of Age or Older

The recommended daily dose of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection in pediatric patients is 300 mg per kg of body weight administered via intravenous infusion in equally divided doses every 6 hours. This 300 mg/kg/day dosage represents the total ampicillin content plus the sulbactam content of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, and corresponds to 200 mg ampicillin/100 mg sulbactam per kg per day. The safety and efficacy of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection administered via intramuscular injection in pediatric patients have not been established. Pediatric patients weighing 40 kg or more should be dosed according to adult recommendations, and the total dose of sulbactam should not exceed 4 grams per day. The course of intravenous therapy should not routinely exceed 14 days. In clinical trials, most children received a course of oral antimicrobials following initial treatment with intravenous ampicillin and sulbactam for injection.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of ampicillin and sulbactam for injection is contraindicated in individuals with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to ampicillin, sulbactam or to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).

Ampicillin and sulbactam for injection is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with ampicillin and sulbactam for injection.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Probenecid decreases the renal tubular secretion of ampicillin and sulbactam. Concurrent use of probenecid with ampicillin and sulbactam may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of ampicillin and sulbactam.

The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients. There are no data with ampicillin and sulbactam and allopurinol administered concurrently.

Ampicillin and sulbactam and aminoglycosides should not be reconstituted together due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by the ampicillin component of ampicillin and sulbactam.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders:
Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and agranulocytosis have been reported. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena. Some individuals have developed positive direct Coombs Tests during treatment with ampicillin and sulbactam for injection, as with other beta-lactam antibacterials.

Gastrointestinal Disorders:
Abdominal pain, cholestatic hepatitis, cholestasis, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice, abnormal hepatic function, melena, gastritis, stomatitis, dyspepsia, black “hairy” tongue, and Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea .

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions:
Injection site reaction

Immune System Disorders:
Serious and fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions.

Nervous System Disorders:
Convulsion and dizziness

Renal and Urinary Disorders:
Tubulointerstitial nephritis

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders:
Dyspnea

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders:
Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, and utricaria

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions:

The PPB Department of Pharmacovigilance was set up with a vision to develop, implement and continuously upgrade an appropriate system for detecting, reporting, and monitoring adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and other relevant problems with medicines in Kenya. The department strives to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products in Kenya.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorization of the medicinal product are important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals/ Patients are encouraged to report any suspected adverse reactions via Pharmacovigilance Yellow Form, pv@pharmacyboardkenya.org or clicking below button:


Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya
Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya
Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya
Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya
Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya
Ampicillin / Sulbactam in Kenya

Clinical | Pharmacokinetic data


Pregnancy Category: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of Administration: Intramuscular, intraveneous
Bioavailability: Not Available
Protein Binding: Not Available
Metabolosim: Not Available
Onset of Action: N/A
Elimination Half life: Not Available
Excretion: Not Available

Legal Status | Dosage forms & Strengths


Prescription Category:
Prescription only Medicine (POM) , ℞-only
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act Schedule:
This drug is not a controlled substance under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Control ) Act
Dosage Forms | Strengths:


Drug Indentifiers:

CAS Number
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References/ Citation:




What was the patient being treated for
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